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From top: Overseas deployment map; Minister for Foreign Affairs and Trade, Charlie Flanagan inspects Irish troops attached to the UNIFIL peacekeeping force in Lebanon last February

French President, Francois Hollande’s, recent invocation of article 42.7 of the Lisbon Treaty has called on all EU member-states to aid and assist France by all means in their power.

This is the first time since the Lisbon Treaty’s formal adoption in 2009 that the so-called mutual defence clause has been activated – meaning we’re all wading deep into unchartered waters.

Ryan McCarrel writes:

Francois Hollande’s request came with a further wrinkle – the French army is already thinly stretched across much of sub-Saharan Africa, from Djbouti along the Gulf of Aden to Senegal on the Atlantic.

Therefore, president Hollande and his cabinet have apparently made it plain that they want other EU member states to send their military support to either Mali or Lebanon, essentially to act as stand-ins for France’s overstretched forces, so they can be redeployed in order to beef up security at home and redirect their attention towards fighting ISIS in Syria.

It is entirely unclear, and indeed, debatable as to whether this is what the authors of the treaty had in mind when they drafted the mutual defence provision in the first place.

What is clear, however, is that increasing the amount of Irish soldiers deployed on overseas missions, to approximately 850, was already on the government’s agenda long before the attacks in Paris – even if relatively few bothered to pay attention.

So it should have come as no surprise when Irish defence minister, Simon Coveney responded favorably to the French request for more soldiers – in fact, he doubled down on the strategy after attacks in Mali on Friday left 21 dead, many of whom were foreign nationals, at the Raddison Blu hotel in Bamako.

At the same time, Coveney charged that those – including myself – who have openly questioned the wisdom of sending more Irish soldiers to France’s deeply fractured former colonies, were “trying to create a story that is unfair.”

Insisting that any request to deploy more soldiers would come through the United Nations adding a further assurance that if such a request were received it would conform to the ‘triple lock principle,’ and therefore, would not violate Irish neutrality.

First, it must be said that if anything ought to be considered “unfair” here, it is Minister Coveney’s framing of IDF deployments as Ireland’s moral and legal responsibility explicitly in response to the attacks in Paris, given that the government had already decided to send an additional 180 soldiers to Lebanon beforehand.

There’s little reason to excuse this politicking, considering raising net deployment numbers has long been part of a 10 year defence strategy that the Minister himself oversees.

Second, when we take a closer look at the history of Irish foreign policy, including past deployments, it becomes increasingly clear that the idea of the so-called triple lock – and with it Irish neutrality – is as much myth as it is reality.

The triple lock principle is a rhetorical trope invented by Tanaiste Mary Harney in 2001 that essentially refers to the political process that ought to take place prior to the deployment of Irish soldiers internationally.

It was clarified in 2002 by then Taoiseach, Bertie Ahern, when he said that any deployment of Irish soldiers abroad must first 1) be approved by the Dáil 2) and the Irish government; and, 3) must be endorsed by the UN – even if only loosely.

Much has changed since then.

Writing in 2013, UCD Professor, Ben Tonra, noted that the triple lock “appears no where in Irish legislation” adding that, “In truth, the only ‘lock’ that exists … is the self-imposed legal requirement for some class of UN authorisation.”

Yet even this self-imposed requirement for UN authorisation, is no longer a guarantor of neutrality – in part, because what constitutes UN authorisation has, for the Irish government at least, slowly eroded over the last decade.

Authorisation used to mean a UN resolution explicitly establishing a peace-keeping force, this is no longer the case. In fact, since the Daíl passed the Defence Act of 2006, what counts as UN authorisation has grown into a ‘laundry list’ of terms, including “supports, endorsed, approved, or otherwise sanctioned.”

The slow erosion of what constitutes UN authorisation was, and continues to be, an intentional maneuver to circumvent the UN security council. In particular, in response to growing weariness on the part of some Irish politicians who are tired of countries like China, using their position on the UN Security Council to veto international missions that the government would otherwise support.

Of course, if we take that last point seriously, what it really means is that by 2006 the Irish government was looking for ways to side-step what was increasingly being regarded as an overly restrictive definition of neutrality.

This, then, is the non-legally binding triple lock mechanism which supposedly safeguards Irish neutrality, that Defence Minister Coveney refers to when offering his assurances. A weakly worded commitment to only partake in missions that have some level of UN support. Perhaps this slow erosion helps explain why Irish soldiers are currently deployed in 13 countries.

It would be unfair to group all of these overseas deployments together of course. The Irish Defense Forces deployment to help with the Ebola epidemic has little to do with their deployment to Afghanistan, for example. And yet grouping these missions under the same UN banner is exactly what looser definitions of ‘UN endorsement’ allows the government to do ().

It’s this grouping that allows the minister to so casually discuss IDF deployments to Mali and Lebanon as if they are interchangeable even though they vary widely. Each conflict has its own context specific dynamics and potential risks and consequences for Ireland’s national security and the the safety of Irish soldiers that must be taken into account, regardless of UN endorsement.

With regards to Mali, the growing possibility that the peace accord will fall apart, or that it was never fully implemented in the first place, means that there may be no ‘peace to keep’ – while extremists there have made a habit out of targeting peacekeepers and aid workers specifically. These, in addition to France’s colonial legacy and particular set of national security and regional economic interests, were only some of the contextual factors that Minister Coveney wanted to so quickly write off as an “unfair story.”.

Yet falling back upon rehearsed rhetorical tropes that boil down to the UN’s tacit approval of some interventions and not others does not in-of-itself provide an indicator of a mission’s legitimacy or moral standing – much less does doing so provide detailed reasons as to why Irish bodies in particular ought to be expected to fill in for French soldiers were they to redeploy to bolster security at home or ‘bring the fight to ISIS’ so to speak.

The UN’s checkered past of powerful states manipulating resolutions to their benefit, and ongoing scandals involving UN peacekeepers, including allegations of sexual abuse, can attest to the first part.

As for the second – Ireland needs to seriously consider the implications of sending more soldiers abroad, at a time when the very safeguard protecting Irish neutrality, the so-called triple lock mechanism, continues to suffer from legislative erosion AND when interlocking security arrangements between the EU, NATO, and the UN muddle what would otherwise be a fairly clear picture of what we could safely consider ‘neutral’ peace-keeping missions.

Indeed, the unprecedented invocation of Article 42.7 by Hollande, in addition to the further French government’s clarification that this aid and assistance ought to take the form of military support for EU-led UN ‘endorsed’ ‘peace-keeping’ missions in their former colonies – so they can redirect their soldiers to fight in yet another conflict beset with its own geopolitical intrigues – just goes to show how muddled this picture has already become.

Ryan McCarrel (@ryanmccarrel) is a PhD candidate in Geopolitics University College Dublin where he specializes in NATO’s relations with its non-member states.

Previously: In Harm’s Way



Anne Marie McNally (above second left) during secondary school and (top) today.

 When Third Level is what ‘others’ do and getting to the junior cert is an achievement.

Anne-Marie McNally writes:

It was Ben Franklin who said “an investment in education always pays the best interest.” That enlightened comment came somewhere in the 1700s but as is true of most words of wisdom, they are more relevant today than ever.

Growing up in inner city Dublin, in what remains one of the most disadvantaged communities in the country, I weaved my way through an education system where my schools, both at primary and second level, were labelled as ‘disadvantaged’ or ‘underperforming’ -before the days of what would now be called DEIS schools.

I had some great teachers along the way but they were struggling in a system where the overriding attitude was that we, the student population, were not really destined for any form of educational greatness so delivering the curriculum and getting us to Leaving Cert would be considered real success though junior cert would be likely more realistic. Ambition was not nurtured – pragmatic stereotyping was more the order of the day.

Most kids I worked my way through the system with came from strong families who were hamstrung by economic disadvantage – my own included. Many of them had parents who themselves had never had access to any education beyond early second level.

Third level seemed like something ‘others’ did. Personally I was lucky to have parents at home who prioritised education and that, combined with my natural indignation at being told by the system that I ‘couldn’t’, ensured I broke the cycle and pushed through. But I was very much the exception rather than the rule and that’s just not acceptable.

I sat in classes where we were encouraged to look to the local VEC at best or the local sewing factory at worst. To aspire to university was highly unusual and really not something that happened very often. When it did it was miraculous – I still get asked back to speak to students by way of the ‘girl done good’ narrative!

Unfortunately not much has changed in the intervening decade or so since I left school. Data published last year following an Irish Times analysis showed that progression rates from affluent areas were almost double those of socio-economically disadvantaged areas.

The analysis also found that those progressing from more affluent areas were more likely to have attended a fee-paying school and/or availed of private grinds. So, as in most things in life, the balance of opportunity is weighted heavily in favour of those who have at the expense of those who have not.

Interestingly, another key indicator that emerges in relation to educational progression is the level of educational attainment of the mother in the family. In other words, there’s a cycle – a vicious cycle- of generational inequality that is perpetuated and solidified by educational inequality.

Education should be seen as a public good – the more society puts in the more society gets out. But rather than families recognising this, it is the State that needs to appreciate the sentiment. It is perfectly acceptable for families to avail of the best education they can afford – indeed they should.

However, it is society’s responsibility to ensure every family has access to the same quality of education regardless of what they can afford. It is not enough to simply invest bricks and mortar into school building projects if you don’t have a symbiotic investment in teacher training and ensure teaching is recognised as a valuable and vital component of a healthy society.

Teachers should be recognised as crucial elements of a vibrant successful society and economy and the respect and remuneration afforded to teachers should reflect that value.

Tomorrow, my Social Democrats colleague in Dublin Central – one of the areas with the lowest third level progression rates in the country – Councillor Gary Gannon will host a public meeting in the Sherriff YC hall [Sheriff Street in Dublin 1] to discuss access to education.

This week is college awareness week. Awareness of college is one thing but awareness that college is a viable option for all –no matter your background – is a whole different thing and that is where we need to get to. If you’re around at 11am in the morning then join Gary in a discussion about how we achieve educational equality.

After all, when Mandela said “education is the most powerful weapon you can use to change the world” I’m pretty sure he was also referring to those outside the affluent suburbs.

Anne-Marie McNally is a political and media strategist working with Catherine Murphy TD and will be a candidate for the Social Democrats in the forthcoming General Election. Follow Anne-Marie on Twitter: @amomcnally


Trouble sleeping?

“SleepAngel™ is the worlds first bedding range clinically proven to block germs, bacteria, virus, nasty dust mites and allergens from contaminating the inside of your pillow while offering a luxurious and comfortable night’s sleep.”

it says here on this email we got.

But not only that!

“Waking up refreshed is the dream start to everyday for the whole family. The pillow offers relief and comfort especially to those who suffer from asthma, allergies and any other respiratory issues”


“We are giving away TWO of these medical grade SleepAngel™ pillows to a zzz-loving broadsheet reader.

To enter, just complete this sentence:

‘The last major dream I can recall involved_________________’

Lines MUST close at  5.10pm MIDNIGHT



From top: Saturday’s The Herald; Dr Julien Mercille

The demonisation of Muslims often leads to the thesis that we are now facing a ‘clash of civilisations’ between the west and Islam. But the only thing that matters is who the West consider its allies and enemies

Dr Julien Mercille writes:

The Paris attacks have led many in the media to demonise Muslims and allege that we are facing a “clash of civilisations” between the West and Islam. Those assertions are dangerous and factually incorrect.

There are many examples, but I think I found the best one of all this weekend in the Herald. Its front page reads: “WELFARE ISLAMIC STATE: Wanted Terror Chief is Living Off Benefits in Dublin; Islamic State Terror Leader in Ireland is Living on Welfare” (see picture). The article tells the story of an alleged ISIS leader who lives on welfare in Dublin.

In addition to being an attack on Muslims, it’s also a not-so-subtle swipe at welfare recipients. The reader is supposed to equate “welfare” and “ISIS” and to think they’re both evil. Readers could thus become more favourable to cutting welfare lest hard-working Irish people subsidise Islamists.

There is also an element of instilling fear among the population—people are more likely to give the government a blank cheque when they believe the nation is under threat. The terrorist described by the Herald is allegedly a “major terror suspect” and is “under constant surveillance by gardai”.

He is “of Middle Eastern origin” and “spends a lot of time in his apartment, leaving very occasionally”. He has “a long association with extremist Muslim terror groups including Al Qaeda”.

The Herald thus joins a long list of commentators who have used the Paris attacks to cast a negative light on Muslims.

Donald Trump said, “I want surveillance of certain mosques” and that he would send Syrian refugees back to Syria if he was elected President. He also called for a database of all Muslims in the United States to be set up, in order to track their movements. Another presidential candidate, Ben Carson, equated Syrian refugees to “rabid dogs”.

Such statements have real effects. A recent study found that hate crimes against Muslims spike after jihadi attacks (the study looked at Britain). For example, anti-Muslim attacks quadrupled in the UK after the Charlie Hebdo massacre in Paris.

The study’s author said the media was in part responsible for this, as “Findings also suggest that where the media stress the Muslim background of attackers, and devote significant coverage to it, the violent response is likely to be greater”.

The demonisation of Muslims often leads to the thesis that we are now facing a “clash of civilisation”, an idea popularised by the American conservative political scientist Samuel Huntington. The Sunday Independent loves that idea and many of its writers have repeated it in the last few days.

For example, Jody Corcoran writes that we are witnessing “conflict along the fault line between the Western and Islamic civilisations” and that “Islam has bloody borders”. There has been a lot of “warfare between Arabs and the West”, for example, on 9-11 and in the recent Paris attacks.

But this, of course, is nonsense because it is factually incorrect. There is no antagonism between “the West” and “Islam”.

For decades, the West has strongly supported Saudi Arabia, which is a cultural center of Islam and the most fundamentalist state in the world; the West is also strongly allied with the Gulf monarchies such as Qatar and the United Arab Emirates.

So religion is not important, what matters is “who does the West consider its allies and enemies”. Allies’ sins will be glossed over while those of enemies will find their way to front pages.

Western governments are now claiming to be offended by ISIS due to its barbaric practices. But there are no such feelings regarding Saudi Arabia (or regarding the US invasion of Iraq, to name one US intervention among many others).

For instance, talking about ISIS, former justice minister Alan Shatter said to the Herald that there was “no moral principle which says you can be neutral when it comes to a group of individuals who believe in beheading people, who glory in death, who enslave women, who inflict terrible tortures on individuals and who basically are responsible for dreadful, appalling atrocities both within Iraq and Syria and quite happy to export their fanaticism to other parts of the world”.

Concerned about beheadings? Women? Exporting fanaticism? Then focus on Saudi Arabia as much as ISIS.

Saudi Arabia reserves the death penalty by beheading for about 80 to 90 people per year ], for crimes including “nonlethal offenses, such as drug-related ones”, reports Amnesty International.

The Saudis are also well-known to export their intolerant fundamentalist version of Islam, Wahhabism, which has inspired many groups in the Middle East, like ISIS. Saudi Arabia has just sentenced to death a poet for “renouncing Islam”.

But nothing is done about Saudi Arabia. In short, there is no clash of civilisations, only power interests.

Finally, here are two resources to follow ISIS-related news:

1) Patrick Cockburn is a journalist who writes for the London Independent, and he’s actually Irish. He is described by many as the best Western journalist on Iraq. His articles can be found here.

2) Robert Fisk also writes for the London Independent and is acknowledged by many as one of the best journalists on the Middle East; he is based in Beirut. His articles can be found here.

Julien Mercille is the author of Cruel Harvest: US Intervention in the Afghan Drug Trade. Follow Julien on Twitter: @JulienMercille


With a pair of silk boxer shorts [as modelled by Karl’s brother top] PLUS a duvet set from Ireland-based bloke bedding online specialists Brosheets to give away we asked: what was your most unusual sleep?

You answered (in some detail) in your tens.

Runners up

ZeligIsJaded: “The most unusual night’s sleep I’ve ever had was lying on the back wall of a pier. I had nagged a friend into taking me out on a fishing trawler, but made the mistake of going drinking with real fishermen the night before.They brought me, sleeping, from the pub to the pier but couldn’t wake me up.
There was an ice room on the trawler that they decided to throw me in to try and rouse me, but to no avail. I snuggled into the ice quite happily by all accounts. Unable to break the spell, they carried me on to the pier again, where I awoke in the fetal position the next morning, perched on the back wall of the pier 15 feet above some fairly uninviting looking water. I’ve never been out on a trawler since!”

Declan: “The most unusual night’s sleep I’ve ever had was inside a stranger’s hot press after a one-night stand went awry.”

Mikeyfex: “The most unusual night’s sleep I’ve ever had was in a guest house in the Himalayas, sharing a room with my best mate and travelling companion. The place was old and run-down – wooden, wobbly and warped – and it was our first night on the trail proper after hiking for 5 days.
I woke in the darkness to the sound of my panicked mate loud-whispering ‘Mike, who’s that, are you alright?’. When I sat upright he relaxed his posture and told me that from his side of the room he could see someone standing over me, looking down at me. A little freaked out, him more than I, I think, we eventually went back to sleep. An indeterminable amount of time later it was my turn; for no apparent reason I blinked my eyes open to see a man standing over me, moving in on me with a pillow in hands, coming for my head. I must have let out a roar as I grabbed my own pillow and swiped it through the air at this person, as the pillow flashed between my eyes and the figure he disappeared and was gone. My mate was sitting up now looking at me. ‘Shall we catch the sunrise?’ he said. ‘Bloody good call’, I said. (for the record we both put it down to it being our first night at altitude in about 10 days combined with the suggestiveness of our surroundings) And now in a shameless act of brown nosing; I really like those shorts and I would suggest I fit your target market almost exactly.”

Art: “Last night, when I got about 10 minutes sleep because I spent many hours cleaning up several tsunamis of vomit after my 5-year-old (without my knowledge) ate half of the newly-made Christmas pudding just before she went to bed…Ice-white crisp sheets sound REALLY attractive to me right now……500-thread cotton sounds fantastic, but tbh, I’d settle for just the 1-thread at the moment.”

Murtles: “The most unusual night’s sleep I’ve ever had was in a large washing machine in a laundromat in Japan. Having stayed in these cheap “pod” hotels for a couple of nights, jet lag and a weird rice wine drink obviously led me astray and I hopped into a washing machine thinking it was a pod. Thankfully the nice lady who started shrieking loudly when she saw me saved me from………what-cha-ma-call-it…..oh yeah……death.”

Ben M: “The most unusual night’s sleep I’ve ever had was when my housemate’s boyfriend, in a drunken stupor, mistook my bedroom door for that of the adjacent bathroom door. I woke up to see a confused naked man staring at me deep in thought, I very quickly realised that the thought going through his head was why there was a man lying in a bed where he thought the toilet should be. Don’t worry, the confusion didn’t bother him for too long, he proceeded to carry out what he left his own bed to do in the first place. To make things even more unusual he decided not to return to his own bed and decided to get into mine. I quickly exited the scene and slept on the couch. Crux of the story is I need new bed linen.

sleeply-nighty-snoozy-snooze: “One of many unusual nights sleep occurred in Clonmel. I had imbibed heavily of various beer and vodka-based libation in a local hostelry. My consumption reached the levels which required the assistance of several less-intoxicated friends to accompany me to the rack-rented hovel which I liked to call home. I woke up the following morning, face down on my bed, with an indecently sparse level of clothing. I had no recollection of the previous evenings frivolities but noticed that there was a man’s watch on the locker beside my bed. It was not mine. The timepiece in question, belonged to one of the good samaritans who dragged me the considerable distance to my flat, disrobed me, and put me on the bed. All I could think was “What circumstances would have to occur to force my associate to remove his watch from his arm whilst they put me to bed ?” I met him in work the next day and returned the watch to him. No explanation was offered and none was asked for. It has been an unspoken intrigue ever since. Good sleep though.

JW: “So I was in a town in Northern Spain, night out after not really drinking for a few months, went mad. Fell asleep in a porch and awoken by Police and shepherded in back of squad car. I sobered quite quickly and protested that I was only staying a few minutes away so no need for the car ride!!
They insisted and drove me up the mountains. Either they were having a laugh or they were going to bate the sh*te out of me, I didn’t really know but was scared so when they stopped I simply legged it. No idea where I was I just ran through a field in the darkness and kept going.
I eventually saw a sign for the place I was staying which was 10km away, kept walking and got back to apartment. My wallet and phone etc. had been taken by cops so had no key card and had to sleep outside my apartment which I had paid a good few quid for. I was let in eventually at about 8AM when guy arrived for work in reception. I was happy to be alive and back in my bed however..
I was awoken at about Midday then by receptionist who said Police wanted to talk to me. So I get to reception and one of the cops is there with all my belongings IE passport, wallet and phone. He made me sign some sort of waiver that said they were only having a laugh or something. It was in Spanish so don’t know what I signed really. I was very happy to get my stuff back and very relived I’m still around to tell the tale, strange night!!”

Jesst:The most unusual nights sleep I’ve ever had was to wake up in the middle of the night to a clatter of nose and a woman standing beside my bed. I woke my boyfriend paralytic with fear until I realised it was his best friend’s wife, both of who were staying in our house that night. He’d gone for a midnight tinkle. Meanwhile, she had sleep walked into our room in just a tshirt and panties. She was shouting obscenities and getting annoyed. My BF got out of bed and tried to direct her back to their bedroom but instead she pulled down her knickers, full muff on show. He had to wrestle her back to the bedroom, muff out, while I stared on in horror, offering no assistants what so ever. He got her in the room, closed the door, and came back to bed. We then heard her husband come back to bed and a little murmuring of chat.
The next day no one mentioned the midday muff show. To this day we’re not sure if they even know it happened

silky willy: The most unusual night’s sleep I’ve ever had was the first night I slept SOBER in my boyfriend’s bed. Usually a terribly light & grumpy sleeper, I somehow fell into one of the most deep and dreamy sleeps I’ve ever had.

Weldoninhio:“The most unusual night’s sleep I’ve ever had was 9 one Friday night back when i was a student. Heard my phone ring and without opening my eyes could tell it was morning because it was bright. Reached down and the phone was on my chest. Answered it, was my boss, “where are you?” “no idea” “what do you mean no idea?” Opened my eyes “I can see the sky” ” you were meant to be in work 10 minutes ago”. I hung up and threw my phone about a foot away from myself. Heard a landline go off in the distance, had already closed my eyes again.
Suddenly heard my mother calling me. “You fecking eejit, what are you doing?” “What?” Opened my eyes again and looked around. I had been asleep in the centre of my next door neighbours front garden, in the middle of the council estate i lived in. It was 9:10am, at least 30-50 people must have walked past without waking me, checking if i was ok, or anything!!!
and my ma made me go into work!!!!!!!!

Happy Molloy: “The most unusual night’s sleep I ever had was in a phone box without a door facing the wind and rain coming in from the Atlantic on Achill Island because I went there without a tent thinking I would sleep agin’ the wall. I turned blue.”

Screen Shot 2015-11-20 at 15.26.50

And the WINNER….

AndyDufresne2011: “The most unusual night’s sleep I’ve ever had was embarrassing. I was in my early twenties and going to an interview for a state agency in a very old office building off Leeson Street in Dublin. The interview was at 4pm and I was a bit early so thought I’d head up anyway. I got into the lift with what I thought was an employee but turned out to be the middle aged woman (who was brought in from an outside recruitment agency) to interview me and one other person.
The lift started and almost immediately crunched to a halt between the 2nd and 3rd floors. This was in early August and it was very hot. We both started to sweat. Neither of us had mobiles (not as common back then) so we just pressed the alarm and waited. An hour later it was becoming increasingly clear no one knew we were there. It was another 2 hours before we managed to crack the lift doors open an inch and start yelling. Eventually a security guard doing his rounds heard us and peeped in through the gap in the foot or so of visible upper floor. He asked how we got there. I sh*t you not.
The guard eventually got hold of the lift technician (who was sick of coming out every other week fixing that particular lift) and he took his time. We reckoned the security guard forgot to mention there were actual people trapped in it this time. He arrived at 8pm, surveyed the situation and went off for reinforcements. We were begging the security guard to ring the Fire Brigade at this stage but he just kept saying he would get into trouble (for what like?!). At 10pm (with the extra technicians probably on triple time) they started to work on getting us out. This did this until 2am! at which point they simply disappeared. It was 4am before they returned and we were eventually released just before 6am. I walked home with the birds singing. The embarrassing thing was, after getting to know the woman a bit , between the quiet hours of 2am to 4am we both fell asleep. Not in each other’s arms or anything but bloody close enough as the lift just about fitted two people. Waking up at 4am when we heard noises again we both looked sheepishly at each other, tried to flatten our creased clothes and sticking up hair and once again stood up to wait for freedom. It was a shot night’s sleep but I fear I’ll remember it forever.
The lowest point was when I made a weak joke about her maybe interviewing me in the lift as we had nothing else to do. She didn’t find it funny. A week later I got my interview with another recruitment agency person. I didn’t get the job. I never found out what happened to the other person who was due to interview. That building has since been refurbished but still gives me the gawks whenever I pass it to this day.”

Thanks all.


Previously: Wake Up Sheetle